Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

African Studies Research Guide

MLA (Modern Language Association) Preferred Citation for IU African Studies Archival Sources

In-text Citations with MLA

MLA follows an author-page format for in-text citation. You should provide enough information within the text to enable readers to locate the full source in the Works Cited page and to differentiate between multiple works by the same author. Usually the author’s surname is sufficient, and/or the date and/or title when citing multiple works by an author or an item with no known author.

... in his letter to the electorate (Hicks, 1956). Voting patterns are  treated in later reports (Annapolis County Chamber of Commerce) ....


Reference-page Citations with MLA

General format: Author (last name, first name). Title/description of material. Date (day month year). Call number, identifier or box/folder/item number. Collection name. Name of repository, location.


Banda, H.K. Letter to R. P. M. Carlson. 27 March 1973. Box 1, Folder 2. H. K .Banda Archive, 1950-1999. Indiana University Libraries, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

Textual document

Townsend, E. Reginald. Typescript of sermon to Grand Lodge of Freemasons of Liberia. 1980. IULC002, Box 2, Freemasons [Sermons 1972-1980].  E. Reginald Townsend and Evelyn Diggs Townsend Papers, 1905-2002. Indiana University Libraries, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.


Photograph of His Excellency the officer administering the government, Mr. Clifford Dupont. Undated. African Studies Reference Collection, Photographs [Rhodesia]. Indiana University Libraries, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.


"50/50 Women & Men in the National Assembly [Namibia]" [poster]. African Studies Ephemera Collection. Indiana University Libraries, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

Malawi Investment Promotion Agency. "News from Malawi and Investors Guide" [pamphlet]. 1998. African Studies Ephemera Collection. Indiana University Libraries, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

Front Line Briefing. "Maputo Declaration of October 12, 1986" [pamphlet].1987. African Studies Ephemera Collection, Indiana University Libraries, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.