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Media Studies

Media Studies refers to the broad range of interdisciplinary subjects focusing on media culture and production.

Librarian for Media Studies, Gender Studies, & Philosophy

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nicholae cline
Herman B Wells Library
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Indiana University Libraries

Land Acknowledgment & Resource Guide

Indiana University and the city of Bloomington occupy lands of enduring historical and cultural significance, and that for some was, is, and will always be home, to a number of Indigenous groups, including the Myaamiaki (Miami), Lënape (Delaware), Saawanwa (Shawnee), kiikaapoa (Kickapoo), and Neshnabé/Bodwéwadmik (Potawatomi) peoples. We honor and acknowledge the ancestral and contemporary caretakers of this place, as well as our nonhuman spirits, elders, and guides, offer gratitude for being held and nourished by the land, and recognize the inherent sovereignty and resilience of all Native communities who have survived and still thrive to this day on Turtle Island in spite of the systemic subjugation, dispossession, and genocide that constitute the ongoing reality of settler-colonialism.

We encourage all, settlers and guests alike, to look beyond acknowledgement and engage with local Indigenous communities while also cultivating thoughtful relations of reciprocity with the sacred land you live on, as well as the many vibrant beings with whom you share it. 

Further Resources & Reading

If you'd like to learn more about the practice and history of indigenous land acknowledgments, consult the resources below. You can also navigate to our full resource guide.

Preliminary Resources

Guides & Toolkits

Critical Takes

To learn more about the tribes, nations, and communities with ties to this land colonially known as the state of Indiana, check out their websites and consider supporting them in an ongoing way however you can:

Myaamiaki (Miami)

Lënape (Delaware)

Saawanwa (Shawnee)

Kiikaapoa (Kickapoo)

Neshnabé/Bodwéwadmik (Potawatomi)


Welcome to the Media Studies subject guide for Indiana University Bloomington

We're glad you're here. This guide contains information pertaining to the field of media studies. Here you'll find featured content, helpful resources and services for scholarsinstructional support informationresearch tips, new titles, and recommended resources.

The subject specialist and collection manager for this area is nicholae cline. If you would like to contact them, please use the profile box located on the left-hand side of this page. If you would like to request a purchase for our collections, you can use this form.

About Media Studies

Media Studies refers to the broad range of interdisciplinary subjects focusing on media culture and production. This may include media theory; game studies & design; communication & culture; telecommunications & communication science; media production, design, & aesthetics; mass media & popular culture; film & cinema studies, including the history & culture thereof; identity & representation; policy, copyright, and other legal frameworks; media ecology; journalism and the news, public relations and advertising, among many others. This subject area may also maintain commitments to sociocultural concerns relevant to information technology, such as the surveillance economy, social media, and other forms of technologically mediated interactions.

Media studies may and often does intersect with other fields, including philosophy, literary & social theory, art history & criticism, and cultural studies, et al.

This guide comprises resources and information relevant to students within the IU Media School, as well as those engaging with media, generally, in their research. Scholars of media often find themselves working with and across a variety frameworks, both regional and global; formats, both analog (filmvideocassettes/DVDs) and digital; and styles, from radio programming to movies, from television to video games, and beyond.

To learn more about the IU Media School, please visit their website.

Featured | Spotlight on Feminist Media Studies

This year for Women’s History Month, we are highlighting feminist media studies. Feminist media studies is a discipline that applies feminist approaches to the fields of media and communication studies. This guide will provide you with resources for researching in this field—we have curated journals, academic books, and textbooks in the area. We have also created overviews of some common, related media studies terms that you might use in your everyday life including the Bechdel Test, the Male Gaze, and the Manic Pixie Dream Girl. Explore this guide to lean about the origins of these concepts alongside criticism of these terms. 

We have also included non-academic sources such as blogs, substacks, films, and television. These sources, along with scholarly selections, often incorporate intersectional approaches to the field of Feminist Media Studies including queer theory and critical race theory.

See below for a list of events/ways to experience (feminist) media at IU and in Bloomington:

Images of Filmmakers/directors (from left to right): Jessie Maple, Greta Gerwig, Ava DuVernay, Chloé Zhao, and Jane Campion

Television featuring shows written by and starring women.

Check out the watch lists below. For help accessing a film through IU Libraries see our guide "Finding Online Streaming Videos" or check Kanopy.

Below you will find resources for exploring feminist media studies through film reviews, substacks, and non-peer-reviewed channels.

Another Gaze—Reviews 

Another Gaze publishes reviews on a wide variety of films from scholars, staff writers, freelances, and film critics. Follow them on Twitter, Instagram, and/or Facebook to keep up with publications. Another Gaze also runs Another Screen, an "irregular streaming platform, bringing you week-long programmes of films by women across modes of production and geographies, with new writing and translations about these works."

T.V. Dinner (Substack) by Maddy Court

Maddy Court writes about television and queer relationships. You might know her as the author of the book and zine series titled "The Ex-Girlfriend of My Ex-Girlfriend Is My Girlfriend." Check out her recaps and commentary of The L Word: Gen Q, Tampa Baes, A League of Their Own, And Just Like That, and more!

Featured posts:

Reappropriate by Jenn Fang (founder and editor)

Jenn Fang is a proud Asian American feminist, scientist and nerd who currently blogs at, one of the web’s oldest AAPI feminist and race activist blogs. Reappropriate focuses on Asian American feminism, politics, and pop culture.

Paging Dr. Lesbian (Substack) by Kira Deshler

From the about page: Here you will find articles and essays primarily about lesbian or sapphic pop culture, but anything else that strikes my fancy is fair game. This newsletter will cover anything I deem of sapphic importance that occurs in the realm of pop culture. It could be something obvious, like why there are so many lesbian period pieces, or something less so, like the eternal star power of Patrick Swayze or my obsession with the exceptional heterosexual angst of TV procedurals. My fascination with pop culture can generally be boiled down to a single question – what moves people, and why? Whatever unexpected directions this question takes me, I’ll hope you’ll join me along the way.

Featured posts:

The Crunk Feminist Collective (CFC)

"The Crunk Feminist Collective will create a space of support and camaraderie for hip hop generation feminists of color, queer and straight, in the academy and without, by building a rhetorical community, in which we can discuss our ideas, express our crunk feminist selves, fellowship with one another, debate and challenge one another, and support each other, as we struggle together to articulate our feminist goals, ideas, visions, and dreams in ways that are both personally and professionally beneficial."

Borrow The Crunk Feminist Collection from IU Libraries!

Articles and Thinkpieces

The Bechdel Test from Dykes to Watch Out ForIntroduction

Advancements in the field of Feminist Media Studies have not come only from academic journals and scholars. In fact, one of the most popular and widely-known concepts in contemporary media studies comes from a 1985 comic strip called Dykes to Watch Out For by Alison Bechdel.

The Bechdel Test, also known as the Bechdel-Wallace Test or Mo Movie Measure, is a measure of the representation of women in film. The test asks whether a film features at least two (named) women talking to each other about something other than a man. The test first appeared in Alison Bechdel's Dykes to Watch Out For, a weekly comic strip which ran from 1983 to 2008 and was one of the earliest ongoing representations of lesbians in popular culture. Bechdel credited the idea to her friend Liz Wallace and the writings of Virginia Woolf. 

Passing or failing the Bechdel Test is not necessarily indicative of how well women are represented in any specific work. Rather, the test is used as an indicator for the active presence of women in the field of film and other fiction and calls attention to gender inequality in media. Additionally, the test is not a way to evaluate whether or not a movie or good or feminist, rather, it allows us to consider who movies are made by and for. Through the use of the Bechdel Test, and other tests that have been inspired by it, we can reflect on how women and other marginalized groups are portrayed, how much depth-of-character they are afforded, and what kinds of plot lines they are allowed.

Check out the Dykes to Watch Out For strip archive online and continue exploring below for more details about the Bechdel Test, its variants, and online resources.

Adapted from: Bechdel Test, Wikipedia Article.

Video: The Bechdel Test—Everything You Need to Know from No Film School

Additional Bechdel Test Resources

Variations of the Bechdel Test

As previously mentioned, the Bechdel Test doesn't provide information on the quality or feminist nature of a film or work of fiction. The test also does not take into account the presence of characters of color or LGBTQ+ characters in a film, nor does it look at the number of women working behind the scenes. This test does allow us to think critically about media representation and the construction of characters with marginalized identities. There have been many variations of the test that aim to consider other identities that have historically been left under-portrayed by mainstream media. Explore some of these variations below:

The Reverse Bechdel Test: Asks the same three questions, but about male characters to examine the prevalence of men who talk to men about something other than a woman as a point of comparison to the Bechdel Test.

The Mako Mori Test: pertains to the representation of female characters within a film or other work of fiction. This test is named after the character Mako Mori from the 2013 film Pacific Rim and its 2018 sequel Pacific Rim Uprising. The requirements are that at least one female character has an independent plot arc and that the character or her arc do not simply exist to support a male character's plot arc.

The DuVernay Test: Asks whether or not African-Americans and other minorities have fully realized lives rather than serve as scenery in white stories. This test comes from film critic Manohla Dargis. Nadia Latif and Leila Latif of The Guardian also suggested this series of five questions:

  • Are there two named characters of color?

  • Do they have dialogue?

  • Are they not romantically involved with one another?

  • Do they have any dialogue that isn't comforting or supporting a white character?

  • Is one of them definitely not a magical negro?

The Vito Russo Test: Created by GLAAD and named after celebrated film historian Vito Russo, this set of criteria analyzes how LGBTQ+ characters are represented in a fictional work. Criteria are listed below:

  • The film contains a character that is identifiably lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender.

  • That character must not be solely or predominantly defined by their sexual orientation or gender identity (i.e. the character is made up of the same sort of unique character traits commonly used to differentiate straight characters from one another).

  • The LGBTQ+ character must be tied into the plot in such a way that their removal would have a significant effect. Meaning they are not there to simply provide colorful commentary, paint urban authenticity, or (perhaps most commonly) set up a punchline; the character should matter.

FiveThirtyEight: 12 New Ways of Measuring Hollywood's Gender Imbalance: FiveThirtyEight asked 12 filmmakers for tests that go beyond the Bechdel Test. Some tests mentioned in the article include The Waithe Test (there is a Black woman in the work who is in a position of power and in a healthy relationship), The Ko Test (there is a non-white, female-identifying person in the film who speaks in five or more scenes and speaks English), The Villalobos Test (the film has a Latina lead and the lead or another Latina character is shown as professional or college educated, speaks in unaccented English, and is not sexualized).

The May Test: Evaluates transgender representation in film and TV. This test looks at whether or not a transgender character is/has:

  • portrayed by a transgender actor
  • safe, stable, and secure (not homeless, assaulted, or victimized—no more bloody noses!)
  • thriving, healthy, and happy
  • in love, loveable, and dating (not a lonely romantic pariah)
  • a trans identity not used as a joke or “surprise reveal” gag
  • an occupation that isn’t sex worker, dealer, or thief
  • a storyline that is not solely about their transition or surgery, or their struggle with their identity

Additional commentary on this test can be found here: “Trans Bechdel Test” is Assimilationist.

Citations: Le Vine, Lauren. The Bechdel Test, The DuVernay Test, & More: What You Need To Know. Refinery29 (2018, June 18); Bechdel test, 


The male gaze refers to the act of depicting women in visual arts and literature from a masculine, heterosexual perspective which presents women as sexual objects for the pleasure of heterosexual men. The male gaze contains three perspectives which originate from:

  1. The man behind the camera
  2. The male characters within the film
  3. The viewer of the visual art/film

The term "male gaze" was first used by the art critic John Berger as part of his analysis of the treatment of women as objects in advertising and nudes in European painting. The British film critic Laura Mulvey coined the term as we know it when she used it to critique traditional media representations of female characters in cinema in her article "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema" (pp. 58-69 in Thornham, Sue; Feminist Film Theory: A Reader. New York, NY ; New York University Press; 1999.):

Laura Mulvey, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema

The male gaze establishes a dominant male and dominated female by representing the female as a passive object upon which the active male viewer can gaze. This gaze has implications not only in film and television but in art, literature, marketing, journalism, communication, and everyday life. 

Adapted from: Wikipedia, "Male gaze"; Images from left to right: TikTokers Won't Stop Calling Out The Male Gaze And It's Quality Content, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque, oil on canvas, 1814, 88.9 x 162.6cm, Louvre, Paris, Representation of Women Research—Advertising Images, Die Another Day (2022) Starring Halle Berry and Pierce Brosnan, Cosmopolitan Magazine

The Male Gaze in Cinema

The male gaze is most often discussed in the realm of cinema. There are innumerable examples of the male gaze in film, from the trophy-like nature of the "Bond Girls" to Megan Fox leaning over the hood of a car in Transformers, images created of women by men and for men are all around us. Mulvey's development of the male gaze are grounded in the theories of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan, both of which provide a lens through which Mulvey interpreted the "primordial wish for pleasurable looking" satisfied through the cinematic experience. Typical examples of the male gaze include close-up shots of women from over a man’s shoulder, shots that pan and fixate on a woman’s body, slow-motion shots of women, and scenes that frequently occur which show a man actively observing a passive woman, often from afar and without her knowledge.

Illustration by Bijou Allard. Scene of Mikaela Banes (portrayed by Megan Fox) from Transformers (2007).

The Male Gaze in Fine Art

In Ways of Seeing, where the term male gaze was first used, John Berger addressed the sexual objectification of women in the arts and advertising by emphasizing that men look and women are looked at as the subjects of images. For art-as-spectacle, men act, and women are acted-upon according to the social conditions of spectatorship. An example of this can be seen below (left) in Édouard Manet's Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (The Luncheon on the Grass), a large oil on canvas painting that depicts a nude woman on a picnic with two fully dressed men and a scantily-dressed bather behind them. Mickalene Thomas' Le déjeuner sur l'herbe: les trois femmes noires (right) is painting that both critiques and references Manet's painting. Thomas' piece portrays three Black women whose positioning and posing is reminiscent of the subjects of Manet's piece, but the gazes of all three women are fixed on the viewer.

Images: (Left) Édouard Manet, Déjeuner sur l'herbe, 1863, oil on canvas, 208x264.5cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris. (Right) Mickalene Thomas. Le déjeuner sur l'herbe: Les Trois Femmes Noires, 2010, Rhinestone, Acrylic, and Enamel on Panel, 120×288×2in, Seattle Art Museum, Seattle.

The Female Gaze

The female gaze describes the gaze of the female spectator, character or director of an artistic work, generating a representation of women as subjects that have agency. All genders can create films with a female gaze if it is defined as a gaze that opposes the male gaze. It is similar to the Matrixial gaze, coined in 1985 by Bracha L. Ettinger. In contemporary usage, the female gaze has been used to refer to the perspective a female filmmaker (screenwriter/director/producer) brings to a film that might be different from a male view of the subject. 

Additionally, much theorization of the male gaze has remained inside the heteronormative paradigm concerning relationships between men and women. Scholars like Karen Hollinger and Patrick Shuckmann have extended gaze theory to include queer cinematic representation, including a lesbian gaze (a mutual gaze extended between two women) and the homoerotic gaze.

Additional Reading 

  • T Magazine: The Renegades: Queer culture and the arts would be much poorer without the presence and contribution of butch and stud lesbians, whose identity is both its own aesthetic and a defiant repudiation of the male gaze by Kerry Manders

Adapted from: Wikipedia, Le Déjeuner sur l'herb, Le déjeuner sur l'herbe: les trois femmes noires. McInerney, Rebecca. The Male Gaze, Art History Perspectives.


A Manic Pixie Dream Girl is a stock character type in films. Coined by the film critic Nathan Rabin, who coined the term in his 2007 review "The Bataan Death March of Whimsy Case File #1: Elizabethtownwhich was published in a volume titled My Year of Flops. Of Kirsten Dunst's character in Elizabethtown (2005), Rabin said: 

The Manic Pixie Dream Girl exists solely in the fevered imaginations of sensitive writer-directors to teach broodingly soulful young men to embrace life and its infinite mysteries and adventures. The Manic Pixie Dream Girl is an all-or-nothing-proposition. Audiences either want to marry her instantly (despite The Manic Pixie Dream Girl being, you know, a fictional character) or they want to commit grievous bodily harm against them and their immediate family.

The Manic Pixie Dream Girl, like some other stock characters such as the Magical Negro, Damsel in Distress, Gay Best Friend, or Girl/Boy Next Door seems to exist only to help the protagonist. The MPDG has no discernible inner life, instead, her central purpose is to provide the protagonist with important life lessons.

Kirsten Dunst and Orlando Bloom as Claire Colburn and Drew Baylor in Elizabethtown (2007)


There has been much criticism of the term Manic Pixie Dream Girl, even coming from Nathan Rabin himself (see our section on the Bechdel Test for a similar phenomenon with another massively popular media term). In 2014, Rabin published a piece titled: I'm sorry for coining the phrase "Manic Pixie Dream Girl." In the piece, Rabin notes that the Manic Pixie Dream Girl is useful when discussing how writers treat the interior lives of women, and notes, like the Bechdel Test, when women are being used only to further a man's narrative. Rabin echoes the sentiments of other media critics when he discussed the misuse of the term, for example, when it is being used to describe a real person (for example, Zooey Deschanel) or the actors who play these characters. Ultimately, Rabin called for the term to be retired:

I would welcome its erasure from public discourse. I’d applaud an end to articles about its countless different permutations. Let’s all try to write better, more nuanced and multidimensional female characters: women with rich inner lives and complicated emotions and total autonomy, who might strum ukuleles or dance in the rain even when there are no men around to marvel at their free-spiritedness. But in the meantime, Manic Pixies, it’s time to put you to rest.

Video: The Misuse of the Term - Manic Pixie Dream Girl

Algorithm-defined Fantasy Girl

A similar trope to the MPDG, the Algorithm-defined Fantasy Girl is a robot or artificial intelligence, with the same function as the MPDG: to fulfill the desires of the male character and to help him in his journey without having any desires or journey of her own. 

Ana de Armas as Joi in Blade Runner 2049 (2017)

Adapted from: Abreu, Rafael. What is a Stock Character — Definition, Examples & Tropes (2022). Wikipedia, Manic Pixie Dream Girl.

Featured | The Sounds of Women's History Month

In recognition of Women's* History Month in March, we have curated a series of playlists honoring the unforgettable contributions of women and femme-of-center nonbinary folks across the history of music, in genres such as folk, punk rock, heavy metal, and classical.

This first playlist is a retrospective of folk artists, beginning in the 60s and spanning all the way to 2021. This includes chart-topping and influential musicians such as Joan Baez and Nico and lesser-known artists such as Linda Perhacs and Elizabeth Cotton from the 20th century, as well as the next generation of folk and indie artists in the 21st century, such as Neko Case and Angel Olsen. To learn more about this music and the artists who have made folk an enduring musical tradition, check out some of the resources we used to inspire this playlist.

Resources for Further Exploration

*Note: Trans women are women. For the purposes of this feature, we have chosen to center feminine expression and embodiment, and so include contributions from artists and scholars who identify as women, whether cisgender or transgender, as well as nonbinary and genderqueer individuals who are femme, femme-of-center, or who identify with or perform femininity in some way. For more on these concepts, check out this article from the ACLU ("Trans Women are Women") or explore some of the resources from this feature on "The Metaphysics of Gender" from the Philosophy Research Guide. And, if you would like to explore the music of trans women in particular, check out our feature on "Transfeminine Worlds," from the Gender Studies Research Guide, which includes a playlist of songs by transfeminine musicians.

Beyond the Playlist
As with many of these national commemorations, one month is never enough to fully honor and celebrate the history and culture of marginalized communities, let alone heal the legacies (and ongoing reality) of harm and systemic oppression they've experienced. We recognize that resisting and rejecting misogyny and cisheteropatriarchy cannot be manifested simply through resource lists and guides, however important and well-intentioned, and that justice and liberation for women, expansively defined, and all who challenge and live outside of binary gender is the work of generations. We are, nevertheless, committed to doing what we can to work towards a different, more equitable and caring future.

If you'd like to engage more deeply with Women's History Month, units across the Libraries have created a number of interrelated resources and features to provide more holistic coverage of this commemoration. You'll find those, below:

Retrospective of punk acts, from its inception through recent times. Explore the sounds of femme artists in punk and the ways they evolved the genre. To learn more about the history of women and transgender punk rockers, check out the resources we used to curate this playlist below:

Retrospective of women and femme-of-center genderqueer rockers across the many subgenres that comprise rock & roll music and heavy metal, from the 80s to today. Explore how femme artists have shaped the sound of heavy music across its history. To learn more about the history of the women and transgender artists who have blown us away with their sound, check out the resources we used to curate this playlist below:

Curated selection of contributions from women in classical music and jazz, from the beginning of the 20th century to today. To learn more about the contributions of women and transgender composers and instrumentalists who have contributed to these genres, enjoy some of the resources we used to put together this playlist below:

Further Reading/Listening

Too often in grand narratives (and playlists), many voices are left out. In this playlist, we've centered the voices of women of color across time and genre as they endeavor to speak out against and articulate the injustices and shortcomings of American democracy across history. In this music is both a ferocious condemnation of the various, interlocking systems of oppression that circumscribe the lives of so many and hope for a future defined by equality and justice. Explore how women of color have crafted political anthems that challenge American democracy to be accountable and inclusive. 

Further Reading/Listening







Recent Additions

The Media Manifesto

Our media systems are in crisis. Run by unaccountable corporations and dominated by agendas and algorithms that are shrouded in mystery, these formerly trusted sources of information and entertainment have lost their way. As consumers, we have plenty of choice, but as citizens we have an abundance of misinformation and misrepresentation. In this incisive manifesto, four prominent media scholars and activists put forth a roadmap for radical reform of concentrated media power. They argue that we should put media justice, economic democracy and social equality at the heart of our scholarship and our campaigning.

Media, Migrants and Human Rights. in the Evolution of the European Scenario of Refugees' and Asylum Seekers' Instances

The volume is a collection of essays - the result of studies, research, projects - on the theme of migration, of the condition of refugees and asylum seekers, of respect for or violation of human rights, of the narration of these events in the media. It offers a lucid glance, through the voice of several scholars, of the European scenario and its evolution in recent years.

The Media-Democracy Paradox in Ghana

This volume focuses on the matrix offered by the media-democracy paradox in Ghana, Africa, and the Global South. As the first black African country south of the Sahara to attain political independence from Great Britain, Ghana is widely acknowledged by the international community as a model of democracy. This book examines the praxis of this democracy and its media, delving into Ghana's evolvement, media practices, leadership aspirations, pressure group politics, and ideological cleavages.

Mediating Multiculturalism

Using digital storytelling--a new media genre that began in California in the late 1990s and that proliferated across 'the West' in the 2000s--as a site of analysis, this book asks, 'What is done in the name of the everyday?' Like everyday multiculturalism, digital storytelling is promoted as an accessible, enabling, and ordinary phenomenon that represents cultural experience more accurately than official sites. As such, the genre frequently houses stories of migration, community, and ethnic and racial differences.

Modernist Magazines and the Social Ideal

The new photo-illustrated magazines of the 1920s traded in images of an ideal modernity, promising motorised leisure, scientific progress, and social and sexual emancipation. Modernist Magazines and the Social Ideal is a pioneering history of these periodicals, focusing on two of the leading European titles- the German monthly UHU, and the French news weekly VU, taken as representative of the broad class of popular titles launched in the 1920s. The book is the first major study of UHU, and the first scholarly work on VU in English.


What are Monsters? Monsters are everywhere, from cyberbullies online to vampires onscreen: the twenty-first century is a monstrous age. The root of the word «monster» means «omen» or «warning», and if monsters frighten us, it's because they are here to warn us about something amiss in ourselves and in our society. Humanity has given birth to these monsters, and they grow and change with us, carrying the scars of their birth with them. This collection of original and accessible essays looks at a variety of contemporary monsters from literature, film, television, music and the internet within their respective historical and cultural contexts.

News 2. 0

Offers fresh insights and empirical evidence on the producers, consumers, and content of News 2.0. The second generation of news--News 2.0--made, distributed, and consumed on the internet, particularly social media, has forever changed the news business. News 2.0: Journalists, Audiences and News on Social Media examines the ways in which news production is sometimes biased and how social networking sites (SNS) have become highly personalized news platforms that reflect users' preferences and world views.

News on the American Dream

News on the American Dream traces the development of the Portuguese­American press from its beginnings in the late nineteenth century to the present, taking readers from the East Coast to Hawaii, with strategic stops in places with large Portuguese communities, including New Bedford, Massachusetts; Oakland, California; and Newark, New Jersey. Alberto Pena Rodríguez's nuanced analysis of the political, economic, social, and cultural roles played by these publications proves how important they were for the Portuguese­American community and the history of the ethnic press in the United States.

No Laughing Matter: Race Joking and Resistance in Brazilian Social Media

'No Laughing Matter: Race Joking and Resistance in Brazilian Social Media' examines the social phenomenon of construction and dissemination of colonial-like racist discourses fostered against upwardly-mobile black women through disparagement humour on social media platforms, adopting a fresh and innovative perspective. In this book, Luiz Valerio P. Trindade explores the idea that disparagement humour might not be as exempt of social impact as the jokers might believe, and that, in fact, this kind of humour reveals the hidden facet of deep-seated colonial ideologies still present in Brazilian society despite being hailed as a unique model of a post-racial society.

Sex Work, Health, and Human Rights

This open access book provides a comprehensive overview of the health inequities and human rights issues faced by sex workers globally across diverse contexts, and outlines evidence-based strategies and best practices. Sex workers face severe health and social inequities, largely as the result of structural factors including punitive and criminalized legal environments, stigma, and social and economic exclusion and marginalization. Although previous work has largely emphasized an elevated burden and gaps in HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) services in sex work, less attention has been paid to the broader health and human rights concerns faced by sex workers. This contributed volume addresses this gap.  The chapters feature a variety of perspectives including academic, community, implementing partners, and government to synthesize research evidence as well as lessons learned from local-level experiences across different regions, and are organized under three parts: Burden of health and human rights inequities faced by sex workers globally, including infectious diseases (e.g., HIV, STIs), violence, sexual and reproductive health, and drug use.

Punk Identities, Punk Utopias

Explores the notion of identities, ideologies, and cultural discourse in contemporary global punk scenes.  Punk Identities, Punk Utopias unpacks punk and the factors that shape its increasingly complex and indefinable social, political, and economic setting. The third offering in Intellect's Global Punk series, produced in collaboration with the Punk Scholars Network, this volume examines the broader social, political, and technological concerns that affect punk scenes around the world, from digital technology and new media to gender, ethnicity, identity, and representation. Drawing on scholarship in cultural studies, musicology, and social sciences, this interdisciplinary collection will add to the academic discussion of contemporary popular culture, particularly in relation to punk and the critical understanding of transnational and cross-cultural dialogue.

The Politics of Laughter in the Social Media Age

The Politics of Laughter in the Social Media Age: Perspectives from the Global South brings to critical and intellectual attention the role of humour in the digital era in the Global South. Many citizens of the Global South live disempowered and precarious lives. Digital media and humour, as chapters in the volume demonstrate, have empowered these citizens through engagement with power and their peers, enabling a pursuit of a better future. Contributors to the volume, while alive to challenges associated with the digital divide, highlight the potentials of social media and humour to engage and seek redress on issues such as corruption, human rights violations, racism and sexism. Contributors expertly analyse memes, videos, cartoons and other social media texts to demonstrate how citizens mimic, disrupt, ridicule and challenge status quo. This book caters for academics and students in media and communication studies, political studies, sociology and Global South studies.

The Oxford Handbook of Queer Cinema

The term "queer cinema" is often used to name at least three cultural events: 1) an emergent visual culture that boldly identifies as queer; 2) a body of narrative, documentary, and experimental work previously collated under the rubric of homosexual or lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) cinema; 3) a means of critically reading and evaluating films and other visual media through the lens of sexuality. By this expansive account, queer cinema encompasses more than a century of filmmaking, film criticism, and film reception, and the past twenty-five years have seen the idea of "queer cinema" expand further as a descriptor for a global arts practice. As the first of its kind, The Oxford Handbook of Queer Cinema treats these three currents as art and critical practice, bringing the canon of queer cinema together with a new generation of makers and scholars. 

Music Documentaries for Radio

"Drawing on both academic research and real world practice, this book offers an in-depth investigation into the production of music documentaries broadcast on radio. Music Documentaries for Radio provides a thorough overview of how the genre has developed technically and editorially alongside a discussion of the practical production processes involved. Digital production equipment and online tools used in music documentary production are discussed in detail, outlining how the development of these technologies shapes the output of producers operating in both the public service and the commercial sectors of the industry."--

A Fan Studies Primer

The discipline of fan studies is famously undisciplined. But that doesn't mean it isn't structured. This is the first comprehensive primer for classroom use that shows students how to do fan studies in practical terms. With contributions from a range of established and emerging scholars, coeditors Paul Booth and Rebecca Williams pull together case studies that demonstrate the wide array of methodologies available to fan studies scholars, such as auto/ethnography, immersion, interviews, online data mining, historiography, and textual analysis. This collection also probes the ethical questions that are unique to fan studies work, such as the use of online fan content for research, interview methods, consent, and privacy.  

Screening Love and War in Troy: Fall of a City

This is the first volume of essays published on the television series Troy: Fall of a City (BBC One and Netflix, 2018). Covering a wide range of engaging topics, such as gender, race and politics, international scholars in the fields of classics, history and film studies discuss how the story of Troy has been recreated on screen to suit the expectations of modern audiences. The series is commended for the thought-provoking way it handles important issues arising from the Trojan War narrative that continue to impact our society today. With discussions centered on epic narrative, cast and character, as well as tragic resonances, the contributors tackle gender roles by exploring the innovative ways in which mythological female figures such as Helen, Aphrodite and the Amazons are depicted in the series. An examination is also made into the concept of the hero and how the series challenges conventional representations of masculinity.

All Media Studies Guides

Contributors' Notes

Brett Hoffman (they/them) - Arts & Humanities Library Assistant, 2019-'21

Wendy Lee Spaček (she/her) - Arts & Humanities Library Assistant, 2019-'21

McLain Chadsey (he/him) - Arts & Humanities Library Assistant, 2021-'22

Jo Otremba (they/them) - Arts & Humanities Library Assistant, 2022-present

Erin Lee Walden (she/her) - Arts & Humanities Library Assistant, 2022-present

Sarah Vitelli (she/her) - Arts & Humanities Library Assistant, 2023-present