Parallel cinema is the name given to experimental, independent, & art films produced in West Bengal, India starting in the 1950s. Typically these films reject popular cinema styles and are produced at smaller production companies or by the director. The movement is known for “serious content, realism and naturalism, symbolic elements with a keen eye on the sociopolitical climate of the times, and for the rejection of the dance-and-song numbers that are typical of mainstream commercial Indian cinema." Parallel cinema is sometimes referred to as "cinema prayoga."
Read an overview of parallel cinema here from The Hindu newspaper.
Read an overview of cinema prayoga here