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Research Essentials

What Is Citation?

Citation involves properly crediting the authors of information sources used in a paper or presentation. Remember to cite not only text-based sources, but also images, video, and other media.

Different disciplines use certain citation styles. Use one of the style guides to the right for the citation guidelines you need.

Citation Style Manuals & Guides

Always cite your sources. Follow these Quick Style Guides or the complete style manuals.

Quick Style Guides

Full Style Manuals
Most citation questions can be answered with the quick guides above. For more specific questions, refer to these full manuals, or consult a librarian.

Quoting vs. Paraphrasing

Many of your assignments require use of both direct quotes and paraphrases.
Both quotes and paraphrases must be cited. 


Direct quotes are word-for-word quotations.
Cite them with quotation marks and an in-text citation

   e.g., The Gettyburg Address opens "Four score and seven years ago" (Lincoln, 1863, p. #). 

Paraphrases restate someone else's ideas in your own words.
Cite with an in-text citation.

   e.g., The Gettysburg Address opens by looking to past decades (Lincoln, 1863, p. #). 

Citation Managers

Citation managers format references in the style you choose (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago).

IU students have free access to several citation managers (i.e., "bibliographic software").

NOTE: Always check the accuracy of citations created through these tools. They can be very helpful, but may make mistakes.


Citation Managers at IU