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AST A452 Extragalactic Astrophysics

Guide for Research Paper portion of A-452

Suggested Topics for Paper

Suggestions for topics (you may choose a topic not listed here, in consultation with me):
- Low-surface brightness (LSB) galaxies
- Active galactic nuclei (AGN), or a particular type of active galaxy (e.g., ULIRGs,
starbursts, BCDs, LINERS, Radio galaxies, quasars, galaxy jets)
- Dwarf galaxies or Giant galaxies (in general, or choose a particular subtype)
- Galaxy clusters and/or groups (e.g., galaxy evolution within these regions, dynamics of
these structures)
- Stellar and tidal streams around galaxies
- Galaxy mergers and/or interactions
- Star formation in galaxies (i.e., on a galaxy-size scale, not the formation of a single star or
star cluster)
- Specific galaxy formation theories and/or simulations; past work and latest results
- Globular clusters (or other stellar populations in galaxies) and their relationship to galaxy
formation and evolution
- Galaxies at high redshift
- Dark matter theories and/or observations
- Dark energy – discovery, latest research, implications
- The Inflation Theory, Big Bang theory and/or observations, the CMB
- Big Bang Nucleosynthesis – theory and observations
- Determining the value of the Hubble parameter, H0
- X-ray source populations in galaxies
- A person whose research has been important in extragalactic astrophysics (e.g., Hubble,
Leavitt, Sandage, Zwicky, deVaucouleurs, Tinsley, Rubin, etc.)
- A telescope or space mission (e.g., Keck 10m telescopes, Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer,
Chandra, GALEX, ALMA, JWST) – with emphasis on the progress it has made, or will
make, possible in extragalactic astronomy
- A galaxy survey (e.g., the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, or one of the various redshift surveys)
and the results from that survey (with emphasis on extragalactic science from the survey)

Criteria for Publication Types



Scholarly Journal

Trade Publication

Popular Magazine


Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology

Architectural Record

National Geographic


Articles usually peer-reviewed before publication by other scholars or experts in the field)

Articles evaluated by editorial staff who may be experts in the field, not peer-reviewed

Often published by commercial enterprises, though may come from specific professional organizations

Articles evaluated by editorial staff, not experts in the field.

Edited for format and style.


Scholarly researchers, faculty and students

Professionals in the field

The general public


Articles are written by experts in the field.

Include author credentials.

Author affiliations listed, usually at bottom of the first page or at end of article.

Articles may be written by a member of the editorial staff, a scholar or a free lance writer.

Author is usually a professional in the field, sometimes a journalist with subject expertise.

Article may be written by a member of the editorial staff or a free lance writer.

Author is frequently a journalist paid to write articles; may or may not have subject expertise.


Articles contain an abstract (descriptive summary of the article contents) before the main text of the article.

Often report original research and reviews while expanding on existing theories.

Offer critiques on previously published materials.

Report current news, trends and products in a specific industry.

Include practical information for professionals in the field or industry.

Cover news about people, organizations, new publications, conferences, and topical issues.

Articles are typically a secondary discussion of someone else's research; may include personal narrative or opinion.

Cover news, current events, hobbies or special interests.


Illustrations are few and support the text, typically in the form of charts, graphs and maps.

Few or no advertisements.

Photographs, graphics and charts.

Trade-related advertisements targeted to professionals in the field.

Slick and attractive in appearance with color graphics.

Glossy advertisements and photographs.


Specialized terminology or jargon of the field.

Assume that the reader is familiar with the subject.

Specialized terminology or jargon of the field, but not as technical as a scholarly journal.

Geared to any educated audience with interest in the field.

Short articles are written in simple language..

Language for any educated audience, does not assume familiarity with the subject matter.

Layout & Organization

Very structured.

Includes article abstract and bibliography. May include sections on methodology, results (evidence), discussion, conclusion, and bibliography.

Page numbers consecutive throughout the volume.(Example: Issue 1 will end on page 455; Issue 2 will begin on page 456.)


Articles organized like a journal or a newsletter.

Typically use glossy paper.

Very informal.

May include non-standard formatting.

May not present supporting evidence or a conclusion.


Verifiable quotes and facts.

Sources cited in footnotes or  bibliographies.

Bibliographies generally lengthy, cite other scholarly writings.

Occasionally include brief bibliographies.

Not required to report any research results.

Sources sometimes cited, but not usually in footnotes or a bibliography

Information is often second- or third-hand, original source rarely mentioned.


Annals of Mathematics

Journal of Abnormal Psychology

History of Education Quarterly

International Trade Forum

Technological Horizons in Education

Psychology Today

Sports Illustrated

National Geographic




Astronomy Publications