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Applied Health Sciences

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Welcome!

Welcome to Applied Health Sciences resources and services at IU Libraries! Here you will find suggested databases, librarian contact information, as well as citation management and open scholarship information.

Using IU Libraries

Best Bet Databases

Popular Resources for Scholars of Applied Health Sciences

Open Educational Resources

OER FAQ

 

Open Educational Resources (also known as OER) are teaching and learning resources that reside in the public domain or have been shared under a license that allow others to freely use and revise them. Open educational resources can include entire courses, course materials, textbooks, multimedia, or teaching techniques. 

Despite the rise of innovative new instructional technologies, for the average student and teacher, educational materials remain limited by high costs, copyright regulations, and technological barriers. Books and supplies were estimated to cost IU Bloomington students $1032 for the 2017-2018 academic year. This impacts students' learning: a national survey found that 65% of students will avoid buying expensive textbooks, even if they know their academic progress will suffer as a result. OER offer a solution to these issues, providing accessible content for students and increasing engagement in classrooms.

OER are always free, but free content is not always considered open. A distinctive attribute of OER is the license they are shared under and that others can update, alter, or redistribute without the need to gain permission from the copyright holder. There is a wealth of content available online that is technically free but with restricted terms of use, even within the context of a classroom. Resources that are available for free but aren't open could also be technologically or economically restricted at any point in the future.

Affordable course content, like OER, works to make educational materials more financially accessible to students. Unlike OER, however, affordable content is not always free or open. "Affordable" refers to a wide variety of ways in which the cost of the content is reduced for students. Some examples include affordable eTexts or library licensed materials. Both are important for helping increase access so selecting which to use depends on the course you're teaching and the material available.

An essential part of finding quality OER is ensuring that the content is relevant to your course objectives, up to date, and properly edited and maintained. You can access thorough evaluation rubrics for OER here and here. Be sure to check out the IU Libraries guide for evaluating OER for a step by step guide.

Understanding OER Copyright: Creative Commons

In order for a resource to be considered open, it must be shared under a Creative Commons license, often allowing others do the following:

  • Retain a copy
  • Reuse the content
  • Revise or modify
  • Remix or combine parts from various sources into one
  • Redistribute the original and your revision/remix

IU Libraries staff can help you understand what the license enables you to do in your course. 

This guide was partially created by Jenny Hoops, Margaret McLaughlin, and Alexis Murrell. 

Cite Sources

What Is Citation?

Citation involves properly crediting the authors of information sources used in a paper or presentation. Remember to cite not only text-based sources, but also images, video, and other media.

Different disciplines use certain citation styles. Use one of the style guides to the right for the citation guidelines you need.

Citing Sources

Always cite your sources. Follow these Quick Style Guides or the complete style manuals.

Quick Style Guides

Full Style Manuals
Most citation questions can be answered with the quick guides above. For more specific questions, refer to these full manuals, or consult a librarian.

MLA Citation Examples

In-Text Citations

Known Author: (Wordsworth 263)
Example: Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).

Unknown Author: ("Impact of Global Warming" 6)
Example: [T]his region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . ." ("Impact of Global Warming" 6).

 

Reference List

Electronic Journal Article
Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal 6.2 (2008): n. pag. Web. 20 May 2009.


Print Journal
Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 15.1 (1996): 41-50. Print.


Book
Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Penguin, 1987. Print.

*Examples taken from the Purdue OWL MLA Guide 

Chicago Citation Examples

Footnote or Endnote

Books:

Known Author:
1. William Faulkner, Absalom, Absalom! (New York: Vintage Books, 1990), 271.

Unknown Author:
2. Economies of Signs & Space (London: Sage Publications, 1994), 241-51.

Electronic Journals:

Known Author:
3. Henry E. Bent, “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 141, accessed December 5, 2008, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

Unknown Author:
4. “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 141, accessed December 5, 2008, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

 

Reference List

Electronic Journal Article:
Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 5, 2008. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

Print Journal:
MacDonald, Susan Peck. “The Erasure of Language.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.

Book:
Danziger, Susan. Slicing up the Pie: Getting a Bigger Half. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

*Examples from the Purdue Owl Chicago Guide 

Quoting vs. Paraphrasing

Many of your assignments require use of both direct quotes and paraphrases.
Both quotes and paraphrases must be cited. 


Direct quotes are word-for-word quotations.
Cite them with quotation marks and an in-text citation

   e.g., The Gettyburg Address opens "Four score and seven years ago" (Lincoln, 1863, p. #). 

Paraphrases restate someone else's ideas in your own words.
Cite with an in-text citation.

   e.g., The Gettysburg Address opens by looking to past decades (Lincoln, 1863, p. #). 

Citation Managers

Citation managers format references in the style you choose (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago).

IU students have free access to several citation managers (i.e., "bibliographic software").

NOTE: Always check the accuracy of citations created through these tools. They can be very helpful, but may make mistakes.


Citation Managers at IU