Skip to Main Content

SPH R110 Foundations of Leisure

What is citation?

Citation involves properly crediting the authors of information sources used in a paper or presentation. Remember all your sources must be cited. This includes images and video. 

Different disciplines use different  citation styles. Assignments for this course require APA style citation.

APA Citation Resources

Always cite your sources. Follow these Quick Style Guides or the complete style manuals.

Quick Style Guides

Full Style Manual

APA Citation Examples

In-Text Citation Examples

Known Author: (Smith, 2000, p. 123)
Example: The author found that cars go fast (Smith, 2000, p. 123).

Unknown Author: ("Using APA," 2001)
example: A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).

Reference List

Electronic Journal Article:
Smith, A. B., & Jones, C. D. (2005). Volunteer support of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(2), 225-229. doi:10.1122/333444555666777

Print Journal:
Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.

Smith, A. (2000). Cars go fast. New York, NY: Good Publishing, Inc.

*Examples taken from the Purdue OWL site and IU's APA Style: A Quick Guide. 

Quoting vs. Paraphrasing

Many of your assignments require use of both direct quotes and paraphrases.
Both quotes and paraphrases must be cited. 

Direct quotes are word-for-word quotations.
Cite them with quotation marks and an in-text citation

   e.g., The Gettyburg Address opens "Four score and seven years ago" (Lincoln, 1863, p. #). 

Paraphrases restate someone else's ideas in your own words.
Cite with an in-text citation.

   e.g., The Gettysburg Address opens by looking to past decades (Lincoln, 1863, p. #).