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HRAF -- Human Relations Area Files

A guide to using ethnographic collections in HRAF and eHRAF

HRAF specific citation guidelines

If you cite the source from within eHRAF, you should include both the original publication citation followed by information about where and when you found it. You should also include the date of access for any eHRAF resource to complete your bibliographic reference.

eHRAF provides templates for citing documents on each document page.  When you click the cite button, a pop-up window will let you select which style of citation you'd like and will also provide you with options to export the reference to a citation manager.  As with all automatically generated citations, the formatting will still need to be checked and tweaked.  For example, the citation below has not italicized the title.

hraf citation example

HRAF uses primary and secondary source documents.  All of those documents can be found online in eHRAF or in IUCAT as Indiana University owns most of the sources indexed in HRAF.

If you go to the source directly, you can cite it directly (see the Cite Sources tab on this guide for more information).