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Black Freedom Movements in American History

Some resources to help understand protest and activism for Black freedom in American history

One of the longstanding debates within the history of the Civil Rights Movement is whether to associate its origins with the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott or earlier, particularly with more radical protests in the early 20th century, and whether to claim it ended in the mid or late 1960s (with the passage of the Voting Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965 or Dr. King's assassination in 1968). The sources linked to on this page focus on the classic period of the 1950s and 1960s, but they also include information about earlier and later work.

See Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, "Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past" vs Sundiata Keita Cha-Jua and Clarence Long, "The 'Long Movement' as Vampire: Temporal and Spatial Fallacies in Recent Black Freedom Studies.

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